ADHD and Addiction

Research and Recovery – Please note that this information has been studied and analyzed. This information shows that the patient is aware of various psychiatric practices and theories. 😊  

“Even if the perspective of the other person absolutely makes no sense to you logically, you should validate it,” says Carolyn Daitch, a licensed psychologist and director of the Center for the Treatment of Anxiety Disorders in Farmington Hills, Mich. Try to understand your partner’s fears and worries, or at least acknowledge that those fears and worries are real to your partner, before addressing why such things might be irrational. 

 “Actually [anxiety], it’s not. The real enemy is avoidance. Anxiety causes [people] to avoid things — like applying to schools, flying to a cousin’s wedding — [that can lead to] an enriched life. … And that causes depression.” 

Clinical physicians, counselors, and therapists create the conditions for the reopening of epistemic trust, an essential component in therapeutic change, as it enables the individual to use the experience of being mentalized, to learn mentalizing of others, and then apply and develop these experiences in day-to-day life, which is the basis for meaningful therapeutic change. 


People with ADHD do not fit in the standard school system, which is built on repeating what someone else thinks is important and relevant 

People with ADHD do not flourish in the standard job that pays people to work on what someone else (namely, the boss) thinks is important. 

People with ADHD are disorganized, because just about every organizational system out there is built on two things — prioritization and time management — that individuals with ADHD do not do well. 

At other times, the working memory impairments of ADHD leave the person with insufficient sensitivity to the importance of a particular emotion because he or she hasn’t kept other relevant information sufficiently in mind, or factored it into his or her assessment of the situation. 

Contentment, inquiry, self-awareness, strength 


“As one of the humans has said, active habits are strengthened by repetition but passive ones are weakened. the more often he feels without acting, the less he will be able ever to act, and, in the long run, the less he will be able to feel…” – C.S. Lewis 


Some extroverts/feelers are very open to new ideas and experiments. They may take real offense to people who try to diminish or dismiss their ideas and vision as being untenable, childish or silly. Negative pessimistic attitudes from other people who try to take the wind out their sails can trigger ENTP and ENFP emotionally, and perhaps motivate them to prove their critics wrong. They may resent such people who try to rain on their parade and try to devalue their dreams and discourage them from trying new things. 

Emotional Triggers: 

◦ Pessimism 

◦ Hopelessness 

◦ Feeling uncreative & uninspired 

◦ Lack of progress 


Philosopher Soren Kierkegaard, in his Sickness Unto Death (1849), suggested that despair could be understood as comprising three stages: Spiritlessness, which applies to those who outwardly seem well-adjusted and successful yet inwardly live in a state of deep and perilous despair; despair in weakness and despair about weakness, which has to do with a refusal to become authentically and fully one’s self and the existential guilt (what Sartre called mauvaise foi or “bad faith”) of this cowardly refusal to move forward and frustrating inability to retreat back to their former identity; and, thirdly, the despair of defiance, which pertains to the capacity of despair to turn, sometimes quite suddenly, to elation, excitement, optimism, enthusiasm, hypomania or mania and frenetic creative activity as so often seen in extremis during the manic phase of bipolar disorder. For Kierkegaard, the cure or antidote to despair is religious faith, in his case, Christianity or what he called Christian existence. (For this brief section on Kierkegaard, I am mainly indebted to Dr. Robert L. Moore’s paper titled “Theory Matters: Analytical Psychology and the Human Experience of Despair” cited below.) 

The implication of Kierkegaards’s conclusion for psychotherapy is profound: For if despair can be cured by religious faith, then it can be surmised that the absence of some spiritual stance or faith is what, at least partially, underlies and comprises clinical despair. But the nature of despair has little to do with any one particular religious belief system, I would argue, and everything to do with the frustrated need for existential freedom, self-transcendence, purpose and meaning. 

Clinical despair is primarily a spiritual crisis. 

Instilling some hope in the patient suffering from clinical despair seems an obvious and simple therapeutic ploy, but in practice proves much easier said than done. Counterintuitively, confronting clinical despair can be closer to taking Dante’s sojourn through Hell in The Inferno, where he anxiously reads the daunting inscription on the gate: ” Abandon all hope all ye who enter here.” Clinging desperately to false hope, whether in childhood, adolescence or adulthood, can paradoxically be a neurotic defense against despair, a defense which, while serving the valuable purpose of survival in some cases, ultimately prevents one from facing and moving past the despair of abandonment, abuse, neglect, loss and other traumas. This is what Jung may have meant when he noted that “neurosis is always a substitute for legitimate suffering.”But when clinical despair is totally avoided or prematurely aborted during treatment by pharmacological and/or psychological means, there can be no true transformation. Tragically, the patient remains stuck in the destructive vicious cycle and potentially deadly snare of clinical despair. 

When you learn to value yourself and take responsibility for your feelings, you are no longer attracted to someone who emotionally abandons themselves. You are drawn to people who also value themselves and want to share love rather than get love. So you will no longer end up with someone who blames, withdraws, judges or sees themself as a victim. You will just not find this person attractive, as they are not at your common level of emotional health. 


It is clear that, especially for so-called celebrities sheltered from reality by fame and money, sobriety (be it from alcohol or other substance abuse or compulsive sexual behavior) demands accepting the same reality we all deal with every day: being responsible for ourselves; making choices that are in our own best interest; and tolerating tedium, frustration, anxiety, and life’s inevitable physical and emotional suffering. Addiction is the habitual avoidance of reality. What the addict needs to discover is that reality is bigger than we are. A devastating blow to one’s narcissistic grandiosity, to be sure. But the beginning of healing wisdom and a willingness to accept and embrace reality — including both its negative and positive aspects — on its own terms. 


Now, it is likely that agents believe delusional hypotheses partly because of their inability to believe otherwise, given the fact that (1) they are unable to think about alternative hypotheses; (2) they are unable to examine alternative hypotheses carefully due to reasoning biases; and (3) there are motivational factors favouring their delusional hypotheses. Although the whole process of delusion formation and maintenance is not fully understood, it would be fair to expect that such impairments and biases play some role in the process. Thus, the first premise of the argument seems to be true. Moreover, agents do not seem to be responsible for the fact that they are not able to believe otherwise. After all, they are not responsible for having those impairments and biases in most cases. 

We propose that we have a case of epistemic innocence if, at the time of the agent adopting the delusional beliefs, the delusion prevents a serious epistemic harm from occurring, and no alternative beliefs are available to the agent. The notion of epistemic innocence that we have applied to the adoption of delusional beliefs can make a number of contributions to the general debate on the ethics of belief: it points to the fact that the scope of epistemic evaluation is wider than the enterprise of establishing whether a belief is justified; it forges connections between deontological and consequentialist frameworks; and it emphasises the need to take into account contextual factors in the practice of belief evaluation. 

So just what is it that saved Scrooge from himself? It’s not about believing in Christmas per se. Or even in God. It’s about believing in life. And fully participating in it. It is what one author (Leuba, cited by William James) has called a “faith-state,” pithily concluding that, “The truth of the matter can be put. . . in this way: God is not known, he is not understood; he is used–sometimes as meat-purveyor, sometimes as moral support, sometimes as friend, sometimes as an object of love. If he proves himself useful, the religious consciousness asks for no more than that. Does God really exist? How does he exist? What is he? are so many irrelevant questions. Not God, but life, more life, a larger, richer, more satisfying life is, in the last analysis, the end of religion. The love of life, at any and every level of development, is the religious impulse.” 

Forgetting that their pride of spirit, 

Their exultation in their trial, 

Detracts most largely from the merit 

Of all their boasted self-denial. 

The mark of the man of the world is absence of pretension. He does not make a speech; he takes a low business-tone, avoids all brag, is nobody, dresses plainly, promises not at all, performs much, speaks in monosyllables, hugs his fact. He calls his employment by its lowest name, and so takes from evil tongues their sharpest weapon. 

  • Ralph Waldo Emerson, The Conduct of Life (1860). 

Constant criticism of others does nothing to change them and it hurts us. Being unloving to others is like taking poison and expecting them to die… when it is you who will be harmed by the barrage of your unloving thoughts towards them. To stem the tide of negativity towards others, you need to start one thought at a time. 


I would like to be acknowledged for my efforts in taking responsibility for my thoughts/actions as well as actively seeking to internalize my mental instability. 

Thank you. 

Published by Shea

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